I am a parent (stay-at-home dad) of two boys (10 and 14 years old). Best advice that I can give is 'attachment parenting' and teaching/encouraging 'emotional intelligence'. Those two were the most recommended by the top child psychologists on Earth.
Both boys have been in gifted and talented programs (without any parental pressure) for many years and are on track to receive full scholarships.
In short, we have talked to them about everything...talk talk and more talk...encourage them to talk about their feelings/emotions...if they feel ashamed about talking to their parents about something, then find someone (friend, family member, school counselor, etc) to talk about it.
From infancy until around the age of four, we would read to them. We'd sit in a chair, place them on our lap, hold the book open right in front of them and read. As they grew older we explained that there is a direct relationship between reading comprehension skills (critical thinking) and the amount of money one could earn in a career. Basically, we asked them: Do you want this type of mid-sized house/property, two cars, time off of work, pets, etc? -> Read and understand what you are reading.