How to see enabled services that have been stopped [systemd]
Someone tell me if there is a better way to do this, but I don't see how. I needed a way to see which services I have *enabled* that I have manually stopped. There oddly isn't a way to do this in one command, so I had to take the output of list-unit-files 'enabled', and use that to filter for 'list-units'. The command is here: ` alias sysstop='systemctl list-units --state=failed,dead,exited $( systemctl list-unit-files --state=enabled --type=service | awk "/.*\.service/ {print }" )' ` So now I can remember that I need to restart mariadb and nginx at some point: ``` $ sysstop UNIT LOAD ACTIVE SUB DESCRIPTION blueman-mechanism.service loaded inactive dead Bluetooth management mechanism mariadb.service loaded inactive dead MariaDB 11.2.2 database server NetworkManager-wait-online.service loaded active exited Network Manager Wait Online nginx.service loaded inactive dead A high performance web server and a reverse proxy server systemd-homed-activate.service loaded active exited Home Area Activation systemd-networkd-wait-online.service loaded active exited Wait for Network to be Configured ``` My other aliases are here, in case anyone finds these helpful. I use them frequently myself. ``` alias sysdis='systemctl list-unit-files --type=service --state=disabled' alias sysdisuser='systemctl list-unit-files --type=service --state=disabled --user' alias sysen='systemctl list-unit-files --type=service --state=enabled' alias sysenuser='systemctl list-unit-files --type=service --state=enabled --user' alias sysfail='systemctl list-units --type=service --state=failed' alias sysrun='systemctl list-units --type=service --state=running' alias sysrunuser='systemctl list-units --type=service --state=running --user' alias sysstatic='systemctl list-units --type=service --state=static' ```

PeerTube v6 is out, and powered by your ideas !
PeerTube is a decentralized and federated alternative to YouTube. The goal of PeerTube is not to replace YouTube but to offer a viable alternative using the strength of ActivityPub and P2P protocols. Being built on ActivityPub means PeerTube is able to be part of a bigger social network, the [Fediverse]( (the Federated Universe). On the other hand, P2P technologies help PeerTube to solve the issue of money, inbound with all streaming platform : With PeerTube, you don't need to have a lot of bandwidth available on your server to host a PeerTube platform because all users (which didn't disable the feature) watching a video on PeerTube will be able to share this same video to other viewers. If you are curious about PeerTube, I can't recommend you enough to check [the official website]( to learn more about the project. If after that you want to try to use PeerTube as a content creator, you can try to find a platform available there to register or host yourself your own PeerTube platform on your own server. The development of PeerTube is actually sponsored by [Framasoft](, a french non-for-profit popular educational organization, a group of friends convinced that an emancipating digital world is possible, convinced that it will arise through actual actions on real world and online with and for you! Framasoft is also involved in the development of [Mobilizon](, a decentralized and federated alternative to Facebook Events and Meetup. If you want to contribute to PeerTube, feel free to: * report bugs and give your feedback on [Github]( or on [our forums]( * submit your brillant ideas on our [Feedback platform]( * Help to translate the software, following [the contributing guide]( * [Make a donation]( to help to pay bills inbound in the development of PeerTube.

Ipod problems
Hey Linux community. I have an ipod and I'm trying to put music on it. Itunes simply will not run and it won't recognise stuff I put on it through files. Is there any thing I can try/use? Information: Linux type: Linux Mint Cinnamon Ipod type: 1.1.2 PC, Ipod Nano, 7th Gen

I finally switched back to Linux as my daily driver after a couple of years of being on nothing but Windows.
I ran Manjaro Linux as my daily driver a few years ago but slowly phased it out for Windows for some reason, and I'm finally back using Linux (currently Linux Mint). I gotta say, I don't know why I ever switched back to Windows. There's just so much freedom Linux gives you right off the bat that Windows is just plain stubborn about. The final straw for me was a couple weeks ago when Microsoft added a Copilot (Bing AI) Shortcut to my Windows 11 taskbar. They'd already added ads to my start menu and preinstalled a bunch of garbage that should be opt-in, not opt-out, so I was just fed up with it at that point. Plus, Linux is so much more customizable. Been running Mint for about a week and a half now, and honestly, I don't think I'll be using Windows much anymore.

ROG Zephyrus G16 speakers not detected on Nobara
Hi, I installed Nobara on my ROG Zephyrus G16 but the audio quality is really poor. I found out that it’s because it’s not detecting the main speakers. Previously, I installed Pop!_OS and Fedora too and they had the same issue. Does anyone know a way to fix this? I’ve exhausted all the online guides I could fine and none seem to work. **Specs:** ROG Zephyrus G16 GU603VU-N4027W 16.0" WQXGA 2560x1600 IPS level ROG Nebula Display Intel® Core™ 17-13620H Processor 2.4 GHz (24M Cache, up to 4.9 GHz, 10 cores: 6 P-cores and 4 E-cores) NVIDIA® GeForce RTX™ 4050 16GB DDR4 1TB M.2 NVMe™ PCle® 4.0 SSD 720P HD IR Camera for Windows Hello Bluetooth 5.2 (Dual Band)

Document Management System for Linux?
I'm looking to organise my paper mail with the help of a scanner and some document management system for Linux. Does anybody have any suggestions? The [paperless-ngx]( project is sort of what I'm looking for, but I don't really want or need to run it in a selfhosted manner. I have a selfhosted server on which I could easily add it, but since I don't really need or want this to be available online in any way (even on my local home network) I don't really want that overhead. I would prefer an application in the manner of what Calibre is for ebooks. That is, it operates on a locally stored library and that's it. No web server.

My first year using Linux: My experience
In the end of November 2022 (1 year ago), I switched from MacOs to Linux (Debian with KDE Plasma) on my MacBook. No regret! Was a very good decision. I think, I'll never go back. Experience: - I did not know about KDE Plasma until 1 year ago. The picture in my head about Linux was pretty much GNOME. I'm a huge fan of KDE Plasma now. KDE Plasma 6 in 2024 will probably be awesome. - The GitHub repository "Awesome-Linux-Software" was awesome during the first weeks. It made me realize that most of the stuff I was already using, is also available for Linux. Only software I had to leave behind: Affinity Designer (IMO far more intuitive to use than GIMP, sorry FOSS community) and Visual Studio for Mac (which is dead anyway) - The only advanced thing I had to do in the beginning: My WIFI connection is always gone when I close my MacBook, but there is not automatic reconnect when I reopen it. None of the usual stuff recommended when using Debian on a MacBook helped. So, I had to write a service that checks for this (something with rmmod, modprobe, brcmfmac, ...). Probably too much for a casual user and hopefully not necessary for them.. TODO in the next year: - Trying out gaming on Linux, maybe buying a Steam Deck - Migrating to KDE Plasma 6 (and switching to Wayland) - Recommending ~~our religion~~ Linux to others

Why didn't anyone remind me the dual booting exists?
I was talking to my dad yesterday and he talked about how he dual booted windows and Linux in his college days. I immediately left to download Ubuntu, I feel so dumb for forgetting it's an option. I literally only use windows so I can play Fortnite with friends. PSA: you can have both Linux and Windows, or you can use a vm in Linux. Be (mostly) free from Microsoft's clammy hands.

What are people daily driving these days?
I'm between distros and looking for a new daily driver for my laptop. What are people daily driving these days? Are there any new cool things to try? I have been using linux mint recently. I have used nixos and arch in the past. Personally, linux mint uses flatpacks too much for my liking. Although, I might have a warped perspective after using arch. (the aur is crazy big)

what caused you to get into Linux?
What caused you to get into it, are you an evangel and are you obsessed?

your stance on image compression and/ or avif/jxl?
Do you have a general stance about it? Once every couple of months I look into the state of both projects and it's slow but steadily progressing. I am mainly looking into it because of the file compression. My tests showed that I can save up to 70% in disk space for a jpg image without losing too much information for both formats, avif and jxl. It depends on the images but in general it's astonishing and I wonder why I still save jpgs in 100% quality. But, I could also just save or convert my whole library to 70% jpg compression. Any advice?

How to take actions on multiple docker containers at once
Again, please tell me if there is a better way to do this. While testing docker, frequently I need to start/stop/rm containers. I got *real sick* of having to ls them and copy paste the container ID. Using this alias, I just have to remember a single part of the name of the container, and I will get the container IDs that can then be included as part of another command: ``` $ alias dcl='_dcl(){ docker container ls -aq -f name="$1";}; _dcl' $ dcl snikket b3fcbc808cc9 1947885fbb24 054d67d2e8b9 d8fe9df5f61f ``` So now that I'm getting a list of IDs, I can easily, for example, pause all of them: ``` $ docker container pause $( dcl snikket ) Error response from daemon: container is not running Error response from daemon: container is not running Error response from daemon: container is not running Error response from daemon: container is not running ``` The containers weren't actually running, but this shows the alias working. dcl obviously stands for 'docker container ls'

Help me decide my first distro for Audio.
Hello everyone, I need help choosing my first distro. I want to be able to run Audio software for editing and mixing. So I need also VST plug ins and others. Currently I use Windows 10, and Reaper. I have worked with macOS and Chrome OS in the past so the desktop and Linux is not something I can't get used to. I also need to run Plex and Torrenting software. I'm a computing engineer, so I can troubleshoot most issues, but I'd like to be able to fix most things. Someone recommended me Lubuntu. Mostly, I'd like to hear your opinions. Thanks.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 10 Dropping The X.Org Server Except For XWayland
> Red Hat has formally confirmed what many were thinking: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 10 will be doing away with X.Org Server support aside from XWayland. > For those making use of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 10 in a desktop setting, RHEL10 due for release in H1'2025 will be Wayland-focused. X11 client support will only come via XWayland. > This does also further solidify the X.Org Server in effect being dead upstream. Red Hat engineers were typically the ones managing new X.Org Server releases as well as carrying on with various bits of development.

Linux Sound Device Manager
I've recently switched my primary PC to Linux (Specifically POP_OS). Overall the experience has been incredible. Far less difficult than I feared. One area that has been a constant annoyance is sound device management. The abilities to independently set volumes by program, and switch between sound devices easily (as opposed to going into settings every time) have eluded me. Perhaps I'm just missing something, but my assumption is that there's a packaged solution for this. I've looked around and seen a few recommendations for pavucontrol, but wanted to check here and see what other people use and why. I'm open to suggestions.

FOUND file in device by hex content using wxHexEditor
Just having a play around, this turned out to be not as clear cut as expected. so I created a file and entered some text, used xxd to get the hex values, and then opened the device /dev/sdb1 in wxhexeditor and tried to find my file, but it's not finding it. Inode is 19, so it should be right at the start of the first block group, but after several minutes, no joy. (drive is ext4.) I thought this was going to be an easy task, just multiply the inode by the block size, open the device with wxhexeditor, and scroll to the line corresponding to the calculated byte, copy out the hex values and convert to ascii and voila, there's the 'hello world'... except no. What am I missing here? Drive isn't encrypted, nothing silly like that. Ok, I managed to do it with dd: ``` sudo dd if=/dev/sdb1 bs=8M skip=$((4660742*4096)) iflag=skip_bytes | head -c 4096 hello ``` but why can I not find it using wxhexeditor?? EDIT: Duh, I didn't click that offset needed to be multiplied by the block size. If I go to offset 4660742*4096=19090399232 in wxhexeditor, indeed I see the file contents: ![]( Final conclusion: After some more testing, I have concluded: you cannot easily calculate the offset using the inode. Finding files across the disk requires using the inode tables to get the offset and actual file location. So an inode does not correlate with a physical/logical sequential disk location. I created a new file, it received inode 21, but the offset was smaller than inode 19. Was that a good use of 3 hours of my life? Well... I still have no idea what's up with the Kardashians, so.. I guess?

Waypipe Makes Me Happy
Howdy, folks! Doing X11 forwarding over ssh has been my go to way to access graphical applications on my headless server. With X11 being deprecated with its many security issues, I was slightly bummed since I thought I'd have to setup VNC or RDP. Low and behold I stumbled across Waypipe! Made my god damn day.

Broke a partition. Is there any way of saving it?
While I was switching distros, I accidentally broke a partition. I'm almost certain that all the data is there, but it doesn't have a filesystem (I used ext4). Is there anything I can do to fix it, similar to changing the file extension without changing the contents. PS: It's a data partition. I was trying to resize it, accidentally also moved it to the left, found out that it was taking forever to move it, so I cancelled it. Finished the move to the left operation (I think), but it threw up an error about the filesystem. I don't remember what it was, though. Thanks to everyone who suggested Testdisk. It worked almost perfectly.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Linux is a family of open source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is typically packaged in a Linux distribution (or distro for short).

Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word “Linux” in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy.


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